Aroma: “Aroma” is a term used to describe the general smell and/or taste of a certain plant or flower. Because cannabis consumers’ individual definition of aromas (such as “earthy,” “skunky,” or “citrus“) can differ somewhat, aroma descriptions are meant as a basic guideline.
Anandamide (AEA): AEA is an endogenous cannabinoid that activates the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and is a partial agonist at this receptor. Anandamide plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Delta-9 THC is said to mimic the functions of Anandamide.
Bud: A cannabis bud is the female marijuana plant’s flower that is harvested for smoking or consumption. The flowers are what contain the highest concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes, which are the active ingredients in cannabis that produce the plant’s effects.
Buzz: Slang for a pleasant euphoric effect of cannabis.
Butane Hash Oil (BHO): Butane hash oil, also known as BHO, is a cannabis concentrate made by extracting cannabinoids like THC and CBD from the plant using butane. BHO can be consumed in many different ways, including vaping, dabbing, or eating. BHO is a very potent cannabis extract and can be up to four times as potent as flower.
Cannabichromene (CBC): Cannabichromene (CBC) is a terpenoid and phytocannabinoid found in cannabis. It’s the second most common cannabinoid in cannabis, after THC. CBC is known to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. CBC has been shown to be especially effective against chronic pain, with one study finding that it was more effective than both THC and CBD.
Cannabidiol (CBD): CBD is a non-intoxicating compound found in cannabis. Unlike its better-known cannabinoid cousin, THC, CBD is not psychoactive. This means that it doesn’t make you feel high. CBD has a number of potential therapeutic benefits, including relieving pain and inflammation, reducing anxiety, and treating seizures. CBD is legal in some countries, including the United States.
Cannabidivarin (CBDV): Cannabidivarin (CBDV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis. CBDV has been shown to interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system, which plays a role in regulating a number of physiological processes including appetite, pain sensation, mood, and memory. Studies suggest that CBDV may be beneficial for treating a variety of conditions including anxiety, epilepsy, and chronic pain. CBDV is also thought to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties.
Cannabinoid: Cannabinoids are a class of chemical compounds found in cannabis that activate cannabinoid receptors in the body. These receptors are responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis. The two most well-known cannabinoids are THC and CBD. THC is responsible for the “high” feeling associated with marijuana use, while CBD is known for its many therapeutic benefits.
Cannabinoid receptors: Cannabinoid receptors are found in the central nervous system and the immune system. The two best-known cannabinoid receptors are CB1 and CB2, which are found in the brain and immune system, respectively. Their primary purpose is to receive cannabinoids, which are molecules that interact with the receptors and regulate various bodily functions to maintain homeostasis.
Cannabinoid 1 (CB1): CB1 receptors are cannabinoid receptors that are mainly found in the brain and spinal cord. CB1 receptors play a role in regulating mood, memory, pain sensation, movement, and eating habits. They are also responsible for the psychoactive and euphoric effects of cannabis.
Cannabinoid 2 (CB2): CB2 cannabinoid receptors are mostly found within cells in the immune system. CB2 receptors play a role in regulating inflammation and pain perception. The activation of CB2 receptors by cannabinoids appears to play a role in reducing inflammation and pain. For example, CB2 receptors are present on mast cells, which are cells that release histamine and other inflammatory chemicals during an allergic reaction. So it’s possible that cannabinoids may help reduce inflammation by blocking or suppressing the action of mast cells.
Cannabinol (CBN): Cannabinol is a minor cannabinoid found in cannabis. It is produced as a degradation product of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana. CBN accounts for less than 1% of the cannabinoids present in cannabis. It is thought to possess certain therapeutic properties. For example, CBN appears to be effective in treating sleep problems, and it may also have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
Cannabis: Cannabis is a plant that has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for centuries. It has been shown to be effective in treating various medical conditions such as chronic pain, anxiety, and depression. Cannabis is also effective in reducing nausea and vomiting, and it can be used to increase appetite in patients who are struggling with weight loss.
Cannabis Sativa: Cannabis sativa is a species of cannabis that is grown for its psychoactive and therapeutic properties. It’s also the source of both hemp and marijuana. Cannabis sativa has been used throughout history for its medicinal properties. For example, it was used to treat pain, inflammation, and asthma. Cannabis sativa is also a psychoactive drug and is the source of the compound THC, which is responsible for the “high” associated with marijuana use. This definition refers to the original Sativa plants. It is hard to come by original Sativa strains because of the amount of cross-breeding present today.
Cannabis Indica: Cannabis indica is a species of cannabis that is indigenous to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is a shorter, bushier plant than cannabis sativa, and has wide leaves and a dense coat of crystal trichomes. Cannabis indica is believed to be the psychoactive form of cannabis, as opposed to cannabis sativa, which is thought to be more energizing. Indica strains are known to produce strong body highs that are often used for pain relief or insomnia. This definition refers to the original Indica plants. It is hard to come by original Indica strains because of the amount of cross-breeding present today.
Cannabis ruderalis: Cannabis ruderalis is a species of cannabis that is indigenous to Russia and Central Asia. It is a low-THC cannabis plant, compared to other cannabis strains, that is used primarily for its fiber content and seed production.
Concentrate (or extract): Cannabis extract is a thick, sticky substance that is made by extracting cannabinoids from cannabis flowers using a solvent. Cannabis concentrates are potent medicines that offer relief to many people who suffer from chronic pain, anxiety, seizures, and other conditions. They are also used to make cannabis-infused edibles. Concentrates can be eaten or smoked, and they are also sometimes added to vape pens.
Cottonmouth: Cottonmouth is a well-known side effect of smoking cannabis, and it’s caused by the cannabinoids that are found in the plant. these cannabinoids bind to receptors in the brain that are responsible for salivation, and when they do, they inhibit the production of saliva.
Decarboxylation: Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group from a molecule. In the context of cannabis, decarboxylation is the process of heating raw cannabis material to convert its cannabinoid acids into psychoactive cannabinoids.
Delta-8 THC: Delta-8 is a cannabinoid, meaning it is derived from the cannabis plant. It is similar to delta-9 THC (the psychoactive component in cannabis), but it is less psychoactive and has different effects.Delta-8 has been shown to decrease inflammation, pain, and anxiety. It may also be beneficial for treating cancer, epilepsy, and other conditions. More research is needed to determine the full potential of delta-8.
Dronabinol (Marinol and Syndros): Dronabinol is a synthetic form of THC that is used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, and to increase appetite in patients with AIDS. While dronabinol does provide some relief from these symptoms, it can also cause significant side effects, including dizziness, confusion, and anxiety.
Edible: Cannabis products that are orally consumed. These products can contain THC, CBD, or a combination of both. Common edible products include cookies, brownies, candies, gummies, chocolates, lollipops, beverages, or homemade goods.
Endocannabinoid System (ECS): The ECS is a vast and complex system of messengers and cannabinoid receptors that exist throughout the body. It’s responsible for maintaining balance in many physiological processes, including appetite, pain sensation, mood, and memory. The discovery of the endocannabinoid system was a huge breakthrough in modern medicine, because it explained why cannabis has such a wide range of therapeutic effects.
Entheogen: Cannabis is an entheogen because it can occasion spiritual experiences. Many people report that cannabis can occasion deeply spiritual and mystical experiences. In fact, the use of cannabis as a religious sacrament is common in many cultures around the world.
Entourage Effect: The entourage effect is the theory that cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds in cannabis work together synergistically to produce a greater effect than any of these components would achieve on their own. Hummingbird Extracts therapeutical blends and cannabis cocktails harness the power of each cannabinoid in combination to produce an unforgettable experience.
Extraction: When cannabis is extracted from the plant, the cannabinoids (CBD, THC, and others) are separated from the plant material. This can be done using a solvent like ethanol, butane, or a natural solvent as well as by using a mechanical method like pressure or heat.
Feminized: Feminized cannabis strains can be helpful for growers, since it allows them to eliminate the need to separate and remove male plants from the crop. However, feminized strains can also be beneficial for consumers, since they tend to produce higher levels of THC and other cannabinoids than their non-feminized counterparts.
Flower: The cannabis flower is the part of the plant that is dried and used to smoke or make edibles. It contains the highest concentration of cannabinoids, which are the chemicals that give marijuana its psychoactive effects. The cannabis flower also contains a number of terpenes, which are aromatic molecules that give marijuana its distinctive smell. Terpenes have been shown to have various medicinal properties, including pain relief and anti-inflammatory effects.
Full-Spectrum Extracts: Hummingbird Full Spectrum Cannabinoid Extracts contains all phytochemicals naturally found in the plant, including formulas with major cannabinoids such as CBD, CBG, CBN, CBC, terpenes, and essential oils. Full-spectrum extracts from hemp also come with a negligible ∆9 THC content — below 0.3%. The cannabinoids, terpenes, and active compounds extracted from our Full Spectrum Extracts work together to amplify the health benefits of each cannabinoid.
Hash: Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis flowers and leaves. Hashish can be smoked, eaten, or vaporized.
Hash Oil: Hash oil is a concentrated form of cannabis that is made by extracting the THC and CBD from the plant using solvents such as butane or ethanol. It is then turned into a thick oil that can be smoked, vaporized, or ingested. Hash oil is a potent drug and can be very dangerous if not used correctly. It should only be used by experienced users who know how to handle it safely.
Hemp: Hemp is a variety of cannabis and is the most commonly used term for cannabis products that contain very low levels of THC. Cannabinoids are a family of molecules that interact with receptors present throughout the body. CBD (cannabidiol) and CBN (cannabinol) are a few of the most studied non-psychoactive cannabinoids found in hemp, and both have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Hemp is also grown for industrial purposes, such as making paper, textiles, and biodegradable plastics.
Hemp oil: Hemp oil is made from the Cannabis plant. The oil is extracted from the seeds of the plant, and it contains a high level of fatty acids and minerals. Hemp oil has a number of benefits for skin care, including its ability to moisturize and protect the skin. It can also help to reduce inflammation and improve skin tone. Additionally, hemp oil is effective in treating acne and other skin conditions.
Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC): HHC is a semi-synthetic cannabinoid that produces a feeling similar to other psychoactive cannabinoids- more specifically, similar to that of delta-9 THC. HHC has a longer shelf-life than delta-9 THC which justifies the appeal it has to both cannabis users and producers.
Homogeneity: Refers to how evenly distributed the cannabis extract is through a product. For example, if 10% of the infused portion of the cannabis product contains less than 20% of the total THC contained in the product, it is homogenous. Homogeneity allows users assurance that they are consuming a consistently prepared edible.
Hybrid: A cross between two genetically different strains of cannabis. Hybrids can happen randomly or purposefully but are typically done to mix two or more preferred traits of a plant to make another powerful combination.
Hydrocarbon extractions: Hydrocarbon extractions are a type of extraction that uses hydrocarbons, such as butane or propane, to remove the desired compounds from the plant material. This type of extraction is quite dangerous and Hummingbird Extracts does not utilize these methods.
Hydroponics: A hydroponic system is a method of growing plants in water instead of soil. One common type of hydroponic system is called a “nutrient film technique” or NFT. In an NFT hydroponic system, the plant’s roots are suspended in a shallow stream of nutrient-rich water. This stream of water continuously flows over the roots, providing all the nutrients the plant needs to grow. Cannabis growers have been using hydroponic systems to grow weed for years. Hydroponics offers several advantages over traditional soil-based growing methods, including: increased yields and faster growth rates.
Industrial hemp: Hemp has a negligible amount of THC (the psychoactive compound in cannabis). Industrial hemp has many uses, including textiles, food products, building materials, and biofuels. Hemp is environmentally friendly because it can be grown without pesticides or herbicides, and it requires much less water than other crops.
Kief: Kief is a powder made from the resin glands of cannabis. Kief contains high levels of THC and other cannabinoids, as well as terpenes. This makes it a potent concentrate that can be used to make edibles, tinctures, or vape oils.
Live resin: Live resin is made by freezing fresh cannabis flowers immediately after harvest and then extracting the resin from the frozen flowers. This extraction process produces a higher-quality extract that retains more of the terpenes and cannabinoids present in the plant.
Marijuana: Marijuana, is a drug made from the dried leaves of the cannabis plant. It contains the chemical THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), which is responsible for its psychoactive effects.
Medicinal Cannabis: Medicinal cannabis refers to the use of the Cannabis plant for medicinal purposes. The Cannabis plant has a history of use as a medicine dating back thousands of years. Hemp seeds were used to make oil and flour in ancient China, and medical texts from ancient India discuss the use of cannabis for a variety of illnesses.
Nug-Run: A term that explains to a consumer that only marijuana nugs were used as the primary extraction material. Nug-run is typically more expensive than trim run and is used to make higher quality concentrates. This phrasing is less common than it was 4-5 years ago, as entire plant extractions have seemingly dominated the market share.
Phenotype: Phenotype is the observable physical or biochemical characteristic of an organism, such as the color of its fur or leaves, the amount of sugar in its blood, or the presence of a protein that codes for THC production in cannabis. The term phenotype includes traits that are determined by the organism’s genes and those that are determined by environmental factors. For example, the color of a plant’s leaves is determined by both its genes and the amount of sunlight it receives.
Pistil: Pistils are the hair-like structures that often range from orange to red in color. Pistils are only found on female cannabis plants and take on a large role during the reproduction cycle. These tiny hairs are found on the flower or bud and can be very colorful depending on how mature the plant is.
Phytochemicals: Phytochemicals are chemicals that occur naturally in plants. Cannabis is a particularly rich source of phytochemicals, including cannabinoids and terpenes which interact with the human body to provide health benefits. Phytochemicals have numerous potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties.
Recreational cannabis: Recreational cannabis is cannabis that is used for recreational or social purposes, such as getting high or enjoying the company of friends. Recreational cannabis has less THC because of legal restraints. The amount of THC in recreational cannabis is limited to 10% or less in most jurisdictions, whereas the THC content of medicinal cannabis can be much higher (up to 30%). This is because THC is the molecule that produces the “high” associated with recreational cannabis use.
Regent: A regent is a molecule that specifically binds to cannabinoid receptors. There are a couple different kinds of regents, but the most well-known are probably the endocannabinoids. These are molecules that our body produces naturally in order to activate the cannabinoid receptors. When we ingest cannabis, the cannabinoids in the plant bind to these same receptors, causing all sorts of effects on our physiology.
Residual solvent: Residual solvent is a term used in cannabis extraction to describe any solvent that is left behind in the extract after the cannabinoids have been drawn out.
Resin: Resin is the sticky, sappy substance that coats the leaves and buds of cannabis plants. This gooey material is made up of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other organic compounds. It’s what gets you high when you smoke or vape marijuana. The terpenes in resin are responsible for the lemon, pine, skunk, and other flavors found in pot.
Schedule I drug: Schedule I drugs are defined by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as drugs with high potential for abuse. Cannabis can sometimes meet the criteria, and so it is classified as a Schedule I drug.
Strain: Cannabis strains are essentially different varieties of the cannabis plant. Breeding new strains is an important part of the cannabis industry, as growers and dispensaries work to create new products that appeal to consumers.
Semi-synthetic cannabinoids: A semi-synthetic cannabinoid is a compound that is synthesized from natural cannabinoids, usually in a laboratory. Semi-synthetics, unlike synthetics, result in identical molecular creation, just encouraged in a lab. Semi-synthetic cannabinoids are the same as natural cannabinoids. They are indistinguishable.
Synthetic cannabinoids: These cannabinoids have been artificially made in a laboratory to mimic the properties of naturally occurring cannabinoids. Although they are designed to induce effects similar to naturally occurring cannabinoids, they do not contain natural compounds.
Synthetic cannabis (e.g., K2/Spice): Synthetic cannabis, also known as K2 or Spice, is a man-made drug that attempts to produce the effects of cannabis. It is often marketed as a “legal high” and has been associated with numerous deaths.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC): THC is the primary psychoactive cannabinoid in cannabis, and it interacts with the CB1 receptor, which is responsible for producing the “high” associated with marijuana.
Terpene: Terpenes are fragrant essential oils that are secreted from the cells of the cannabis plant. These oils are responsible for the plant’s distinctive aroma, and they also have a host of potential therapeutic benefits. Terpenes bind to receptors in our brains and interact with our physiology in ways that we’re still learning about. But so far, it’s clear that they play an important role in how cannabis affects us. For example, some terpenes seem to enhance the psychoactive effects of THC, while others may be helpful in relieving anxiety or inflammation.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA): Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is the main non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in raw and living cannabis. THCA is a “precursor” cannabinoid, meaning that it converts to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after heating (e.g. when you smoke or vape cannabis). Interestingly, THCA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects.
THC-O: THC-O is a cannabinoid that appears to have a range of therapeutic benefits. It has been shown to be effective in treating chronic pain, inflammation, and anxiety disorders. Additionally, THC-O has anti-cancer properties and may help reduce the risk of seizures. More research is needed to determine the full extent of THC-O’s benefits, but it appears to be a promising compound with great potential for helping people suffering from various conditions.
Tetrahydrocannabidivarin (THCV): THCV is a cannabinoid found in cannabis. It is structurally similar to THC, with the exception of the vinyl chain being shortened by two carbon atoms. THCV has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight in animals, and may have applications for the treatment of obesity. It also decreases fasting blood glucose levels, and has been suggested as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Tincture: A tincture is a concentrated liquid extract made from herbs, spices, or fruits. Cannabis tinctures are high in THC and other cannabinoids. They are a great way to consume cannabis for medicinal purposes. Cannabinoid tinctures can be used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions.
Topical Cannabis: Topical cannabis products are those that are applied directly to the skin. The cannabinoids in cannabis are absorbed through the skin for localized relief of pain, inflammation, and other symptoms. Cannabis topicals are typically lotions, balms, or oils that have been infused with cannabinoids.
Trichome: The trichomes are the stalked glands of cannabis that secrete the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. The resins produced by the trichomes are what contain the highest concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes. The color of the trichomes can vary from clear to amber to dark brown, and this will depend on the strain and maturity of the plant.
Trim: Trim is the name of the leaves and stems which are removed from the cannabis plant when preparing buds for consumption. Many people recycle trim in order to make cannabis butter for edibles.
Vaping: When a vaporizer is used, the cannabinoids are heated to the point of vaporization, but not combustion. There is still some debate over the long-term health effects of vaping, but it is generally agreed that it is much safer than traditional smoking. It is confirmed thar the user does not get the harmful toxins and carcinogens that are released when cannabis is smoked using fire. However, there is still some debate over the long-term health effects of vaping, but it is generally agreed that it is much safer than smoking.
Vaporizer (AKA Vape): A vaporizer is a device that allows the user to inhale vaporized cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD, without combustion.